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托福口语突破之独立话题的思路拓展

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托福口语突破之独立话题的思路拓展
 

托福口语的评分标准是从delivery, topic development, language use三个角度去衡量考生的口语水平和口语能力的。语言的流畅度体现在考生的整体语言面貌,语言使用体现在词的变化以及句式的多样化方面。而对于很多同学,甚至是已经拿到一个不错的分数但又想要继续提高分数的同学来说,有时会感到疑惑,话题到底怎么发展才能做到有效,怎样才能做到不跑题,如何构架答案使其听上去更具逻辑性。本文中,朗阁海外考试研究中心的专家将和考生们探讨一下如何做到思路拓展,并且学会在生活中锻炼自己有条理地叙述。

我们组织思路一般有三种方式:逻辑重要性,时间顺序和空间顺序。

首先我们先讨论逻辑重要性的轻重如何把握。

为了使答案听上去有重点,主次突出,我们在输出答案中一般存在两种选择,一是将最想说的理由或是事情放在开头说,次重要或是自己认为并不十分重要的放在后面说,这样,即使是碰到时间紧迫的情况下,我们也可以将我们核心的观点说出来,而选择性的忽略一些思考不够成熟的理由或是例子。在这种情况下,理由的关系往往是并列的,这里的并列不是指逻辑上的同等重要,因为刚才已经说了要把重要的理由放在前面说,这里强调是为了让同学们注意正确的使用表并列的衔接词。

二是在利用准备时间的时候要写下关键词,把较为简单容易的放在前面说,后面说较为复杂的理由,可以在结尾升华,这样易于加深自己表达的重点,与主题呼应。这时理由间的关系是递进的状态,逐次的夯实自己要表达的中心。但在考试中由于准备时间比较短,如果碰到不熟悉的话题为防止跑题,这时就更趋向使用第一种方法。不过两种方法在平时的练习中都是很好的练习手段。

对于思路的拓展,很重要的就是逻辑关系词的使用,正确良好的使用关系词,可以将零散的答案立刻变得有序,听上去就会很有逻辑性。常见的逻辑词有:

1. 表示强调和具体的有:in fact, that is, actually, in other words, inparticular, specifically, especially…

2. 表示承认和让步的有:even though, although, but, yet, of course, nodoubt, undoubtedly, certainly…

3. 表示转折的有:Despite, in spite of, although, even if, however,in fact...

4. 表示总结的有:finally, in short, on the whole, all in all, inother words...

5. 表示补充的有:together with, in addition to, besides, too also,as well as, and not only...but also, both...and, moreover, furthermore, also,as well, in addition...

6. 表示举例的有:such as, like, for instance, for example...

7. 表示原因和结果的有:due to, because of, because, since, so... that, aslong as…,and so therefore,thus,consequently, as a result, for this reason...

8. 表示比较和对比的有:like, (just) as, while, whereas, or, nor, similarly,likewise, in the same way, in contrast, on the other hand...

使用什么样的关系词是由答案中的逻辑关系决定的。下面我们看两个例子,对比逻辑关系在答案中的妙用。题目是What two courses do you focus on the most inuniversity and why?

I like math because my attitude comes from my career plans: I want to work designing computer. Mathematics is basicto understanding computer operations. And I like English, too. In computerdesign, it is important to be able to communicate correctly and effectively inEnglish. English will be the tools to express my ideas and to write effectivememos and letters. I feel I know my career plans deeply, and I get good gradesnow.

这样的一个答案听上去意思还是很清楚的,但是缺乏了合理的扩展和联接,所以更像是简单句的堆砌,让人听上去索然无味。下面的例子加入了小词和一些插入语,使其听上去更口语化,也符合正常交流的语言状态。

Sample:

Although I know that I have to study a variety of subjects tobecome a well-round person, there are two courses on which I put special focus.The most important course to me ismath. The reason is that my attitudecomes from my career plans:I want to work designing computer, so mathematics, of course, is basic to understandingcomputer operations. The course that issecond in importance to me is English. In computer design,as in anybusiness area, it is important to be able to communicate correctly andeffectively in English. English will be the tools to express my ideas and towrite effective memos and letters. By working particularly hard in theseclasses, I feel I am furthering my career plans, as well as getting good grades now.

其次,我们也可以按照时间的发展顺序去进行叙述,这样的叙述方式往往是出现在我们要描述一件发生在自己身上的事,朋友或亲戚的经历或是举名人事例时。比如描述一次我的欧洲之旅,可以这样说:

Last Christmas I took amonth-long trip to Europe. First, Iwent to London. I stayed there for twoweeks. I saw many historical places and went to several shows. After London, I flew to Paris, where Iwent shopping and visited the Louvre. I stayed in Paris for a week. Then I went to Rome by train. In Rome I saw theColosseum, the Pantheon, and Vatican City. Aftera week in Rome, I flew home. It was an educational and enjoyable trip.

中间可以加入旅行的感受,结尾也可以加入这趟旅行的意义,对比中外建筑的差异等等来进行拓展,这里主要还是强调描述时间发生顺序的方法,这在我们平时和朋友交流的真实语境中也会常常用到。

最后,我们也可以按照空间顺序展开,这种方法我们常常在地点类话题中使用,比如我们要谈论your favorite place, 可以这样说:

My favorite place is my living room. It’s rectangular with the door on the left side of the south wall. Inthe wall opposite the door is apicture window. Below the window isa sofa. A coffee table is in front of thesofa. Facing the sofa are twoarmchairs. An abstract painting is onthe west wall. Along the east wallyou will see a long cabinet with a vase of flowers on it. To the right of the cabinet is a small table with a telephone onit. This bright and uncluttered room makes me feel comfortable and relaxed.

这样的方式,一个干净整洁的房间就仿佛在你眼前一样,这依靠的就是合理的方向性的叙述。

当然,我们要注意,有逻辑的叙述并不是流水账式的描述,这还需要你在答案中加入自己的态度和想法。但在培养这种逻辑当中,做一些简单的思维训练,比如将一天的活动串起来;或是在一个陌生的环境中,对周边景色或物体进行有条理的描绘,都是培养语言逻辑性的好方法。

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