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托福语法 连词的考点及解析

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有人说,现在托福考试考听说读写,已经没有所谓的纯语法题了,语法已经完全没用了。真的是这样吗?其实不然。启德学府分析了几千份托福试卷
有人说,现在托福考试考听说读写,已经没有所谓的纯语法题了,语法已经完全没用了。真的是这样吗?其实不然。启德学府分析了几千份托福试卷,杭州哪里学托福好--首选杭州360托福培训学校发现很多考生阅读和写作得分不高的根本原因是语法。不会分析句子结构,搞不清主谓宾,定状补,别说写了,读都是问题。所以,启德学府劝诫广大考生,不要因为考试中没有语法题就忽略了语法的重要性。下边,我们将着重分析从属连词这一知识点:

TOEEL常考的从属连词分三类:(1)关系代词( that, which ,what who. Whose) (2) 关系副词(where when why how) (3) 状语从句连接词 (where, when, if, though, because…) 有关从属连词的试题大部分集中在Structure (1-15题中) 掌握命题规律,这类题目并不复杂。从属连词常考题型及解题要点
  1. 主句与从句之间必须有从属连词
  全真例题分析
  (1)The spiral threads of a spider*s web have a sticky substance on them ------- insects.
  (A) traps
  (B) trap its
  (C) which traps
  (D) which it traps
  [答案] C 定语从句关系代词which引导从句,且在从句中作主语。
  (2)Angiosperms inhabit relatively diverse environments and may be found ------- higher plants can survive.
  (A) there
  (B) wherever
  (C) somewhere
  (D) then 
  [答案] B 空格前后为两个完整的句子,这里应填入连接词联系主从两句。四个选择只有wherever是连词,引导地点状语从句。
  (3)Duke Wellington was a composer. Conductor, and pianist ------ ranked as one of the greatest of all jazz figures.
  (A) him
  (B) although
  (C) or
  (D) who
  [答案] D 关系代词who引导定语从句,并作从句的主语。
  (4)-------. Some of the Earth*s interior heat escapes to the surface.
  (A) A volcano erupts
  (B) A volcano whether erupts
  (C) A volcano erupts it
  (D) If a volcano erupts 
  [答案] D 从属连词引导条件状语从句。
  2. 关系代词 who与which混淆错用
  解题要点:在written Expression (16-40题)中的四个选择答案中出现who 或者which,应确认它所指代的是人还是物。
  全直例题分析
  (1)Fossil remains indicate that squidlike creatures called belemnites swam in the sea who covered the North American continent 70 million years ago. 
  [答案] C 关系代词who指代的是sea,因此应用指物的which或that。
  (2)Vaccines for some rare diseases are given only to persons which risk exposure to the disease.
  [答案] B 关系代词which指代前面的persons,应改为人称关系代词who。
  (3)Anne Elizabeth McDowell is best remembered for a weekly journal, the Woman*s Advocate, who she launched in January 1855.
  [答案] D 关系代词who指代杂志the woman*s Advocate,故应改为which。
  (4) The attorney general of the United States advises the President on any questions of law who may arise in the conduct of administrative affairs.
  [答案] B 关系代词who指代前文的questions of law,故应改为which或that。
  3. 介词+关系代词which结构
  解题要点 介词+which作用相当于一个关系副词,在从句作状语。可表示时间(=when) ,地点(= where) ,原因(=why)等等。
  全真例题分析
  (1) In reorganizing the curriculum of Mt. Holyoke College in the late 1800*s Elizabeth Mead laid the foundation ------- the modern college rests.
  (A) is which
  (B) on which
  (C) which is on
  (D) on it
  [答案] B on which 指代on the foundation ,作用相当于一个表示地点的关系副词。
  (2) A circuit may be defined as a closed path ------- electricity can How.
  (A) through it
  (B) through which
  (C) that is through
  (D) there goes through 
  [答案] B through which 指代through the circuit, 作用相当于一个关系副词,而介词through才能准确地表达句子的含义。
  (3) The extent of the harmful effect of locoweeds on animals depends on the soil ------- the plants grow.
  (A) which
  (B) which in
  (C) in which
  (D) in 
  [答案] C in which = where
  (4) Adhesives, such as glue, tape and gum, vary with the purpose ------- intended.
  (A) they were for
  (B) for they were
  (C) which were they
  (D) for which they were 
  [答案] D for which指代for the purpose。
  4. What 引导的名词性从句
  解题要点:what兼先行词和关系代词双重身份,即what = the thing (things) that…。因此考生应特别注意,what既已包含先行词在内,它的前面就不应该再出现先行中心名词。What 与that 的区分是TOEEL常考题目
  全真例题分析
  (1) During the eighteenth century, Little Turtle was chief of the Miami tribe whose territory became ------- is now Indiana and Ohio.
  (A) there
  (B) where
  (C) that
  (D) what
  [答案] D what = the area that。What所指代的是地点、位置。然而,此句却不可选择(B)where。因为关系副词where不能作从句的主语。只有what即是先行词又是关系代词。
  (2) The chief foods eaten in any country depend largely on ------- best in its climate and soil.
  (A) it grows
  (B) what grows
  (C) does it grow
  (D) what does grow
  [答案] B what grows = the thing that grows…另请注意:介词后面通常不能接that引导的从句,但可接what引导的名词性从句。
  (3) A hinge joint is ------- permits the forward and backward movement of a door.
  (A) the
  (B) what
  (C) those
  (D) whose 
  [答案] B what = the thing that…
  (4) Essentially, a theory is an abstract. Symbolic representation of ------- reality.
  (A) what it is conceived
  (B) that is conceived
  (C) what is conceived to be
  (D) that is being conceived of
  [答案] C what = the thing that (is conceived to be…) .答案(A)中的代词it是多余的,因为what本身即已包含了先行词(the thing ) 和关系代词(that) 。答案(B)中的关系代词that引导的从句不可以置于介词的后面。
  (5) Most of the food what elephants eat is brought to their mouths by their trunks.
  [答案] B what应改为that。此句已含有先行词food,不能再用关系代词what。
  5. 主句和从句
  解题要点 主语从句是TOEEL常考而中国考生又较陌生英文文法结构。有关主语从句的命题几乎全部集中在structure (1-15题)中。主语从句的特点是读起来有种头重脚轻的感觉,而且有两个谓语动词。连词That 引导的主语从句应特别留意。因为That 在句中没有任何意义,它只具有引导出主语从句的功能,因而很容易被忽略。
  全真例题分析
  (1) ------- xenon could not from chemical compounds was once believed by scientists.
  (A) For
  (B) It was
  (C) That
  (D) While 
  [答案] C That引导的主语从句。其中第一个谓语动词could from 是从句的谓语,第二个系动was是主句的谓语。
  (2) ------- to space travelers is high acceleration of deceleration forces.
  (A) Danger can be
  (B) They can be dangerous
  (C) What can be dangerous
  (D) While danger
  [答案] C what引导的主语从句。What既是从句的连词,又是从句的主语。
  (3) ------- has been a topic of continual geological research.
  (A) Did the continents originate
  (B) How did the continents originate
  (C) Have the continents originated
  (D) How the continents originated
  [答案] D How 引导的主语从句。
  (4) ------- progress helps to relieve scarcities is a fact accepted by economists.
  (A) Technological
  (B) That technological
  (C)Although technological
  (D)There is technological
  [答案] B. That 引导的主语从句,当连续读到两个谓语动词(e.g. Helps…is),而空格在句首,应首先考虑主语从句。这是主语从句典型的句子结构。

考生在平时备考过程中,一定要意识到托福语法的重要性。仔细揣摩每一道真题,分析其中考察的语法考点,分析每一语法常犯错误的原因,做到知错能改,融会贯通。祝大家在托福考试中取得好成绩。

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