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托福阅读题型:推理题

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托福阅读题型:推理题
  摘要:新托福阅读中,推理题是比较常见的一种,一般包括两个事物对比推理,时间对比推理和集合概念推理等题型,新托福阅读推理题有比较明显的标志,也有其独特的答题技巧,下面,小编就为大家传授新托福阅读推理题解答方法。
    
    
根据 ETS 的统计数据,2009 年至 2013 的年中国学生托福阅读平均分为 20 分,而相应的平均总分为 77 分,这就是说,阅读是托福四项的相对高分项。下面就给考生分享下新托福阅读推理题解答方法,希望能帮助考生取得更满意的托福阅读成绩。
    
    
一、推理题的标志
    
    
推理题的题干中一般含有infer, imply, most likely, least likely, probably等词,分为有共性的推理题和无共性的推理题两大类。
    
    
二、推理题的做法
    
    
对于无共性的推理题,也就是题干中无线索的,一般使用排除法,即根据各个选项的关键词回原文定位,通过排除法得出正确答案。
    
    
对于有共性的推理题,也就是题干中有线索的,建议考生可以先圈定题干中的关键词,根据关键词回原文定位,然后进行推理。推理题主要有下列思路:
    
    1.
集合概念推理
    
    
集合概念推理也可以称之为百分比推断,它指的是在一个集合中,包含两个相对的方面,共同构成一个大的集合。一方所占的比例减少意味着另一方所占比例的增加;反之,一方所占的比例增加意味着另一方所占比例的减少。根据这一思路,可以由集合中一方的数量变化推断另一方的消减。
    
    
例:
    
    A folk culture is small, isolated,cohesive, conservative, nearly self-sufficient group that is homogeneous incustom and race, with a strong family or clan structure and highly developedrituals. …Unaltered folk cultures no longer exist in industrialized countriessuch as the United States and Canada….
    
    By contrast, a popular culture is alarge heterogeneous group, often highly individualistic and constantlychanging.
    
   What does the author imply about the United States and Canada?
    
    (A) They value folk cultures.
    
    (B) They have no social classes.
    
    (C) They have popular cultures.
    
    (D) They do not value individualism.
    
    2. 
时间对比推理
    
    
这种思路常被考到。在这种推理中,一般有两个形成对比的时间段,它们所具有的特征一般相反。当题干问一个时间段的特征时,只要将与之相反的时间段的特征否定掉就可以了。
    
    
例:
    
    Basic to any understanding of Canadain the 20 years after the Second World War is the country’s impressivepopulation growth….
    
    …It appeared that Canada was oncemore falling in step with the trend toward smaller families that had occurredall through the Western world since the time of the Industrial Revolution.
    
    It can be inferred from the passagethat before the Industrial Revolution
    
    (A) families were larger.
    
    (B) population statistics wereunreliable.
    
    (C) the population grew steadily.
    
    (D) economic conditions were bad.
    
    3. 
一般对比推理
    
    ETS
设计推理题的手段不多,根据两个事物的对比特征出题是其中之一。问其中一个事物的特征时,只要将与之形成对比的另一个事物的特征否定掉就可以了。
    
    
例如:
    
    It should be obvious that cetaceans,whales, porpoises, and dolphins are mammals. They breathe through lungs, notthrough gills, and give birth to live young. Their streamlined bodies, theabsence of hind legs, and the presence of a fluke and blowhole cannot disguisetheir affinities with land-dwelling mammals. However, unlike the cases of seaotters and pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses whose limbs are functionalboth on land and at sea), it is not easy to envision what the first whaleslooked like.
    
    Which of the following can beinferred from paragraph 1 about early sea otters?
    
    A. It is not difficult to imaginewhat they looked like.
    
    B. There were great numbers of them.
    
    C. They lived in the sea only.
    
    D. They did not leave many fossilremains.
    
    
以上内容给考生详细介绍了新托福阅读推理题解答方法,希望对考生有帮助,大家可以根据题干标志圈定托福阅读推理题的范围,然后运用本文中的技巧,一举搞定推理题!更多托福考试精彩内容尽在小马过河托福频道,敬请考生持续关注。

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